Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination based on sex in programs and activities of federally funded institutions. School district programs and activities must be operated free from discrimination. Key areas addressed by Title IX include: athletics; sexual misconduct, including sexual harassment and sexual violence; pregnant and parenting students; off-campus activities; recruitment and admission; and employment. Schools must protect against discrimination in these areas. Schools must also prohibit retaliation against any person for opposing an unlawful practice or policy, or filing, testifying about, or participation in any complaint under Title IX.