9th Grade Registration Q & A with the RHS Counselors:
Have questions about registration and course selection for 9th grade? Join the RHS Counselors on Zoom to get answers on Wednesday, March 15 from 5:45-7:00PM. Join with the following links:
Questions and Answers Zoom in English:
Preguntas y Respuestas Zoom en Español:
Thank you to those who attended the 8th into 9th Grade Parents Night!
You are encouraged to review the presentation while working on course selection for 9th grade.
- Parent Night Presentation with hotlinks
Remember, students must be logged into Aeries with their student login. Courses cannot be added utilizing parent log in credentials.
Welcome to Redlands High School!
Seniors! How do you want your name to appear on your High School diploma?
If you want something other than your legal name printed on your diploma, you must complete this form:
If you do not complete this form, your diploma will be printed as it is in Aeries.
8th into 9th Grade Parent Night and Registration Information
Click on the image below for all the details and to save the date!
Spring 2023 Dual Enrollment is here!
Current 11th and 12th Graders with a recommended minimum academic 2.0 GPA have an opportunity to take FREE Crafton Hills College Dual Enrollment classes this Spring.
Applying for college classes begins NOW. Deadline to submit is November 11th. Students who complete a Dual Enrollment class are eligible to receive college credit and high school elective credit. Whether you are returning to Dual Enrollment or new to Dual Enrollment, you must apply for each term you are requesting.
If you missed the RUSD Dual Enrollment Counselors Informational Meeting on Monday, October 10, you can view the presentation information here:
- Presentation Slide Deck
- 2023 Dual Enrollment Classes
- Spring 2023 DE Worksheet - Easy hotlinks!
- Student/Parent Meeting Recording (Passcode: 8sqa%EUr)
For help, please reach out to the appropriate Dual Enrollment Counselor:
Mrs. Walsh – RHS (dual enrollment students last names A-L)
Mrs. Kusko – RHS (dual enrollment students last names M-Z)
Deadline to Apply for Spring 2023: November 11, 2022
Seniors, it is time to complete the FAFSA or CADAA! If you missed the presentation during Gov/Econ or special session for the summer Gov/Econ attendees, you can access the important information provided here.
Think your family won't qualify? You should still apply. Colleges frequently give out merit and other scholarships, but only to students who have completed the FAFSA or CADAA.
Even if you do not plan to attend college next fall, you should complete this application for Financial Aid. Plans can change!
Don't miss this opportunity to have your senior photo taken for the yearbook. Make your appointment today. Photographers will be on campus after school hours October 11-October 14. If you have any questions stop by room 54 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Having trouble with Minja or just want to learn more? Try these helpful links:
Minga Video #1 - Access Account
Minga Video #2 - Main Screen
Minga Video #3 - Home & RHS Icon
Minga Video #4 - Groups
Minga Video #5 - Events
Minga Video #6 - Hall Pass
BEFORE graduation please submit a Senior Final Transcript Request Form. (Click on the hyperlink to submit your request now.)
Your final transcript will be sent by the Records Office to the college you plan to attend only if YOU request that it be sent. All final transcript requests will be mailed by the Records Office the week after final grades are posted AND only if all fees/books are cleared on your account.
California Student Mental Health Week is May 9-13, 2022
Student Mental Health Week is a week set aside to recognize the importance mental health plays in students’ lives, their experience in school, and in their future. It also serves to remind us of the damage that can be done when mental health stigma exists.
Suggestions for practicing wellness and coping strategies for each day next week can be found below, along with the Resources on the Virtual Wellness Center.
Students in need of additional mental health resources and supports are encouraged to see their RHS School Counselor.
Dual Enrollment Information for Summer and Fall 2022
Current 10th and 11th Graders with a minimum 2.0 Academic GPA have an opportunity to take FREE Crafton Hills College Partnership Dual Enrollment classes this Summer 2022 and Fall 2022. Registration for Dual Enrollment classes begins NOW.
- Summer and Fall Course List
- Summer Worksheet Instructions with hotlinks!
- Fall Worksheet Instructions with hotlinks!
- Student and Parents Presentation Slide Deck
The deadline to complete the multi-step registration process is April 29th.
Students who complete a Dual Enrollment class are eligible to receive college credit and high school elective credit. Whether you are returning to Dual Enrollment or new to Dual Enrollment, you must apply for each term you are requesting.
If you were unable to attend the Parent/Student Informational Meeting on April 12, you can view the Recorded Dual Enrollment Meeting. Access Passcode: %83sh!Uw
For more information or help with the process following the information meeting, please visit your CHC Adjunct Counselor in the RHS Counseling Office:
Mrs. Walsh (student last names A-K)
Dr. Kusko (student last names L-Z)
Work Permit Updates for Spring Break
If you are planning on getting a job before Spring Break, be sure to have your Work Permit Request Form completed and turned in to Mrs. Padilla in the Student Center before 3:30 on Wednesday, March 16th for it to be processed in time for you to start working over break.
WORK PERMITS WILL NOT BE PROCESSED DURING SPRING BREAK.
** Remember you need to be offered a job first before requesting a Work Permit. Please download and print out the Work Permit Request form (see link below) and complete all sections including Student, Parent and Employer with signatures or you can stop by the Student Center to pick up a form.
All minors under the age of 18 who are working are required by law to have a work permit on file and renewed each school year. Please email Mrs. Padilla if you have any questions.
Reminder graphic: https://drive.google.com/file/d/10KFpC6VJPgnvXVc5Pm5g3fIFsA4qTT5M/view
Work Permit Information: https://sites.google.com/redlandsschools.net/rhsstucen/work-permits
USD Job Board: bit.ly/RUSDJobBoard
Registration for Grades 10-12 for 2022-23 School Year
District wide information that applies to all RUSD comprehensive high schools:
- College and Career Pathways
- Honors/AP PowerPoint
- Honors/AP Video (English)
- 8th into 9th Grade Video
- RHS Courses that are A-G Approved
12th Grade Registration New for 2022-23 School Year!
11th Grade Registration - New for 2022-23 School Year!
10th Grade Registration - New for 2022-23 School Year!
9th Grade Registration - coming in late March 2022
- Presentation Slide Deck
- 9th grade worksheet
- 9th Grade Video
- 8th into 9th Grade District Video
Summer School 2022
Summer School classes for Redlands High School students will be held in person, for all students in 2022. Classes will be held here at Redlands High School. The summer session is divided into two semesters. Each semester class offers 5 credits. A breakfast will be available daily at no cost.
Dates and times:
- June 20 - July 8 (14 days)
- No school on July 4th
- Time: 8:30a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
- Tutoring: 12:45 p.m. - 1:45 p.m.
- July 11 - July 28 (14 days)
- Time: 8:30a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
- Tutoring: 12:45 p.m. - 1:45 p.m.
Registration is completed through your counselor. Please make an appointment to see your counselor before school, at lunch, or after school to discuss summer school enrollment and attending summer school.
Redlands Emergency Services Academy - RESA Info Session - January 26th
Seniors, if you are interested in a career in Law Enforcement or Firefighting, you may want to apply for the Redlands Emergency Services Academy (RESA). This is a great opportunity to get hands-on experience while learning about Public Service careers. To find out more about this summer program for GRADUATING SENIORS ONLY, register for this information session on Wednesday, January 26th during 3rd period. Please register HERE. You will be sent a pass to attend this presentation on the morning of January 26th.
**Also, check out this article on a RHS alumni who participated in the program and is now pursuing her career in Fire Service!
For more information, see Mrs. Padilla in the Student Center.
If you missed the 9th Grade Student Success Parent Wrokshop on 10/28, Mrs. Kennedy and Mrs. Magana have recorded the workshop in English and Spanish. Don't miss this great information - check it out!
Group Support at RHS
Struggling with life experiences, stress & anxiety? Would you like to learn better resiliency and social skills or how to feel more impowered? If so speak to your counselor about joining the professionally lead and fully confidential Group Support starting Wed., October 6 on campus. Permission slips must be completed to attend. Services provided through South Coast Counseling.
24/7 Online Homework Help for Middle and High School Students
Redlands Unified School District is offering free 24/7 online homework help/tutoring through FEV tutoring for all middle school and high school students in the district. To access FEV Tutoring, students log on to their Clever account and select the FEV icon. Here is the link for more information: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Hm0kvMqzhwPQDqS4JXpZZg04EZChhHYc/view?usp=sharing
The link includes a flyer in English and Spanish.
Interested in attending a Service Academy?
This includes the Air Force Academy, Naval Academy, Military Academy (West Point), Coast Guard Academy, and the Merchant Marine Academy. Tuition is completely free for these highly respected colleges and graduates have a guaranteed career in the military as an officer upon graduation. Admission requires an appointment from a member of the U.S. Congress. To learn more about this opportunity, attend Congressman Aguilar's informational meeting on September 15 from 5:-6:30PM via Zoom. Email Matthew.Tovar@maiil.house.gov or call 909-890-4445 for more information and to RSVP.
Juniors, you are encourage to continue exploring CaliforniaColleges.edu this summer to discover more career options that match your interests, personality, and learning strengths and to find out which educational programs and institutions supporting the education/training you need to achieve your goals.
To review the presentation given through US History classes, check out the slide deck and its hotlinks: CaliforniaCollege.edu-A Post High School Planning Tool
Credit Advancement Summer School (Not for Credit/Grade Recovery)
Registration for 2021 Redlands High School Credit Advancement Summer School ended April 23. Students interested can add their course request to the waitlist:
Summer 2021 Credit Advancement Waitlist
Incoming 9th Grade Only: Credit Advancement Courses and Discriptions
RHS Summer School Principal
Credit/Grade Recovery Summer School 2021 (Not for Credit Advancement)
Current RHS students, if you failed a core class or earned a D in a course needed to complete your a-g requirements for college admissions, you are encouraged to complete the summer school application:
Credit or Grade Recovery Summer School
Additional details are available on the form. Contact your counselor with questions and guidance during Office Hours Monday-Friday during lunch and after school until 3:00PM, until 2:00PM on Block Days. Get all the details and Zoom links here. Credit Advancement information will be coming soon. Do not use this form for Credit Advancement!
8th into 9th Grade Information
The timeline for this year's 8th into 9th grade events is as follows:
April 9 and 12 - High School Presentations through 8th Grade Social Studies Classes at the Middle Schools
April 12 at 6:00PM - Redlands High School 8th into 9th Grade Parent Night
- This year's Parent Night will be virtual and include live sessions with RHS staff (session times are indicated and meeting links provided), as well as pre-recorded videos. Topics to be covered include graduation requirements, registration forms, honors programs, summer school, CTE classes, dual enrollment and Advanced Placement, student activities, and academic policies.
- Please join us via the following links:
April 14 at 6:00PM - Parent and Student Live Q&A Information Session via Zoom with RHS Counselors - for general course selection and scheduling questions. Sessions available in English and Spanish with meeting links for each below:
- For English join Zoom Meeting here
- For Spanish join Zoom Link here
April 15 and 16 - "Becoming a Terrier Days" - 8th Graders will meet with their assigned RHS Counselor via Zoom through their Social Studies class for a lesson on graduation requirements, course options, and other RHS activities. Counselors will walk students through completing and submitting the 9th Grade Registration Google Form by the end of the class block.
*Click the following link for a complete list of upcoming application and audition due dates: Application/Audition Classes
- Early May - 8th Graders and their parents will be able to review course requests in Aeries
We look forward to having you as part of our Terrier family!
Future Terriers (current 8th graders headed to RHS next year)
The Redlands High School Counselors want to encourage all our future parents and guardians to save the date for attending our annual 8th into 9th Parent Night on Monday, April 12 at 6:00 p.m. This year's Parent Night will be virtual. Topics to be covered include graduation requirements, registration forms, honors programs, summer school, CTE classes, dual enrollment, student activities, and academic policies. Registration documents will be available prior to the meeting.
Timeline for this year's registration is as follows:
- April 9 and 12 - High School Presentations through 8th Grade Social Studies Classes at the Middle Schools
- April 12 at 6:00PM - 8th into 9th Grade Parent Night
- April 14 at 6:00PM - Parent and Student live info session via Zoom for general course selection questions. Sessions available in English and Spanish.
- April 15 and 16 - "Becoming a Terrier Days" Students will meet with their assigned high school counselor through their Social Studies class for a short lesson on courses and the selection process. Counselors will walk students through completing and submitting the 9th Grade Registration Google Form with course requests by the end of the day.
Application/Audition Classes - Please click the link for a complete list of upcoming application and audition due dates.
Prior to April 14, every student should access their Aeries Student Account (not the Parent Account) to identify their RHS counselor. Students awaiting approval for intra-district transfers may need to check their portal at a later date. Can't get into your Aeries Student Account? Click Forgot Password? and reset your password to your permanent ID number.
Welcome to Terrier Town Class of 2025!
RHS Digital Student IDs
Redlands High School IDs are now digital! Follow these directions for getting yours today! Video directions are also available!
RHS is piloting a new school culture social media site! Students and parents are encouraged to join and check it out! It will be a one-stop-shop for everything you need to know about RHS happenings! Click this link and use the code UHFY to join Redlands High School!
Graduation Information for Senior Terriers and Parent/Guardians:
Please click HERE to fill out a Google form to confirm your name as you would like it to appear on your RHS DIPLOMA. All names will default to the legal name listed in Aeries unless otherwise stated on the form. Please make any changes which might include hyphens, deletion of a middle name, addition of a middle name, etc. Please note that your diploma is a formal document and therefore you should give serious consideration to any changes. All changes that deviate from your Aeries name, must be approved by your parent/guardian.
Diplomas for the Class of 2021 will be available for pickup on a TBD date contingent upon COVID-19 regulations.
When diplomas become available, a student must pick up their own diploma. A photo ID and signature is required to obtain the diploma.
The school will hold diplomas until students are able to pick them up.
Please make plans knowing that final transcripts and diplomas will not be ready until June 23, 2021. If entering the military, no entry should be planned until after June 23, 2021.
NOTE: The records office does not keep a duplicate copy of your diploma. Once you receive your diploma, please make multiple copies and or take pictures of your original diploma and then secure it in a safe place.
Please fill out the survey on or before Friday, March 5, 2021.
Drop-In Counseling Office Hours
Some problems are best solved with a quick conversation. Ask questions and find solutions Monday through Friday during lunch and after school until 3:00PM, until 2:00PM on Block Days. Please use your counselor’s link below:
- Mr. Luis Chanure
- Mrs. Kimberly Elgin
- Mrs. Dennise Kennedy
- Mrs. Vaughan Kusko
- Mrs. Maria Magaña-Saenz
- Mrs. Sherry Walsh
For Dual Enrollment Concerns, visit
- Mrs. Vaughan Kusko (Student last names L-Z) or
- Mrs. Sherry Walsh (Student last names A-K)
Seniors with a 3.25 unweighted 9-12 GPA consider applying to Crafton Hills College Honors Institute.
There are many benefits of membership, among which are:
- Priority consideration for admission to designated universities through Honors transfer agreements.
- For example, Crafton has an agreement with UCLA that in essence triples an Honors Completer’s likelihood of being accepted for transfer. (The high school applicant acceptance rate averages about 16%, the community college student transfer acceptance rate averages about 24%, and the Honors Completer transfer acceptance rate averages about 70%.)
- For a list of universities with whom Crafton has transfer agreements in addition to UCLA, see https://www.honorstransfercouncil.org/transfer-partners. This list is growing every year.
Completion of an Honors program has a definite impact on acceptance rates even when there is not a formal agreement.
- One-on-one contact with Honors faculty
- Access to a dedicated Honors Counselor
- Intellectual challenge and preparation for upper division coursework after transfer
- A community of like-minded students
- Opportunities to participate in local, state, and national research conferences
- Opportunities for student leadership
- Honors at graduation, including a distinctive addition to graduation apparel
- Notation of Honors completion on CHC transcript
- Use of the Honors Lounge, which includes computers and free printing
- Invitations to Honors activities
Honors students do not take extra classes while at CHC; instead, they take Honors sections of classes they would take anyway. Being part of the Honors Institute should not increase the time students spend at Crafton, but it will increase the quality of their time here because they will be part of a community of excellent, focused students and have a broader range of opportunities than they might have otherwise.
The requirement to apply for the Honors Institute is a minimum 3.25 cumulative GPA, unweighted, in grades 9-12. That means Honors is not necessarily a program for only the top of the academic pile, but one in which students who are ready to become more academically focused and motivated should apply.
To complete the Honors requirements, students must complete 15 Honors credits with an A or B (for most students that means 5 Honors courses, total) and 15 community service hours. Honors students must also maintain at least a 3.25 cumulative GPA and participate in at least two Honors activities each semester.
For most students, it is an advantage to come into the program when they start at Crafton because it gives them ample time to complete their Honors coursework. Crafton will accept students into the Honors Institute before they graduate from high school, but cannot be active in the program until they are actually taking classes at Crafton. Once accepted into the program, students are free to take an Honors class in Summer or Fall 2021, but they can also wait until Spring 2022. They do have to take at least one Honors class by the end of their first year in the program.
Students who are not quite ready now can also apply after they have completed at least 12 transferable units at Crafton with a 3.25 GPA or higher.
Students can apply now by completing the online application form available under “Applications and Forms” on the CHC website (www.craftonhills.edu/Honors), students can find more information about the Crafton Hills College Honors Institute. Applicants will need to submit a copy of their most current high school transcript. It does not need to be an official copy.
For answers to your questions about the Honors Institute, reach out to Judy Cannon at email@example.com.
2022 National Merit Program Alternative
Juniors who did not take the 2020 PSAT/NMSQT (normally offered in October 2020 and January 2021) due to illness, emergency, or other extenuating circumstance (including school closures) and who meet all other program entry requirements, may utilize an alternative entry for the 2022 National Merit Program. Click the following link for details and deadlines:
Seniors attending Crafton Hills College Next Year, Sign-up for SOAR!
Want to insure that you get the college classes you want and need in the fall? Participating in SOAR will give you "Priority E" Registration along with advisement from a Crafton counselor on which classes you should take and important information on registering for your classes. Follow these links for detailed information:
- Link to Sign Up for SOAR – We may run out of space this year due to high interest in Crafton Hills College, so you are encouraged to sign up early.
- Student Instructions for SOAR – This has DETAILED info on all aspects of SOAR including deadlines, help sessions, and mandatory zoom meetings with links.
The mandatory kick-off meeting is on Thursday, February 25 from 3:00-4:30PM. You must sign-up and complete your Crafton Application to participate. Get started today!
Helpful College Appliction Links
- California State University (Here's an application guide to help you)
- University of California
- California Baptist University
- La Sierra University
- University of LaVerne
- University of Redlands
- Grand Canyon University
- Common App (many private and out of state schools)
Spring 2021 Dual Enrollment Sign-ups!
Spring 2021 Dual Enrollment Slideshow
If you missed the District Meeting for Spring 2021 Dual Enrollment held October 26, please review the presentation and explore the hotlinks provided in this slide deck. The application process has changed. This presentation covers the new steps involved.
Course Chart Spring 2021 Dual Enrollment
RUSD/Crafton Hills College Dual Enrollment Course Offerings for Spring 2021 complete with hotlinks to course descriptions.
Hurry, the deadline to apply is Friday, November 13, 2020.
Check out this link for all the tips and tricks for being Drug Free!
College Application Week is November 2nd-13th!
Workshops will be provided with 1:1 support before school, during lunch and after school for Seniors while they work on their college applications. These sessions will include support with UC, CSU, Private, Out-Of-State and Community College applications. Sign up for a session with this link: https://forms.gle/RCXt7y4YnJUsLsWn9 or through the flier posted on the Class of 2021 Google Classroom.
Don't miss out on this great opportunity to get help on this important step for college! Sign up now to reserve a spot!
Sophomore Counselor Visits
Counselors joined 10th grade English classes on October 13 and 14 to present important informaition for sophomores. If you were absent or just want to catch a portion again, here are the links to the video and the slide deck with hotlinks:
10th Grade Counselor Visit Video
Counselors visited Junior English classes on October 6 and 7 to present information important to students in the 11th grade. If you were absent or would like to review this information again, here are the links:
- 11th Grade Visit Video
- 11th Grade Visit Slides - with active hotlinks!
If you would like to meet with your counselor, click on the Counselor Connect Form to schedule an appointment.
Senior Classroom Visits
On September 22 and 23, counselors presented in Senior classrooms. If you were absent or missed something, you can access the video and slide deck here:
12th Grade Visit Video New! | 12th Grade Visit Slides - with active hotlinks! New!
12th Grade Visit Video for Special Ed. New! | 12th Grade Visit Slides for Special Ed. - with active hotlinks! New!
Counselors will be scheduling senior one-on-one Zoom appointments in October.
College Events Calendar
Fall College Events - CLICK HERE for Student Center Upcoming Events calendar
Virtual Wellness Center
Need to calm your mind? Visit the Virtual Wellness Center!
If you are experiencing a social-emiotional crisis during school hours, click here for access to help right way.
Looking for Help Logging into Various Programs?
Check out this quick guide for accessing important learning plateforms.
Introducing a New AP Class for 2020-2021
AP Computer Science Principles will be offered at Redlands High School next year. Find out more about this class here: AP Computer Science Principles
If you are interested in taking this class next year, email your counselor as soon as possible. Counselors will be on vacation when you go on summer break!
Welcome to "The Harbor"! Take some time to watch this short video clip and check back each week for another episode. You are encouraged to watch and discuss each episode with family and friends.
In this week’s episode "Rooted in Love", Mike acknowledges that this moment we find ourselves in will cost each of us something, in some way. But, he challenges us to pause and look for what this moment is giving to us as well. What opportunities do our current social disruptions and distance from others give us?
Take some time to reflect on this question. Talk about it with the important people in your life. Embrace the opportunities!
FREE After School Tutoring
Beginning Oct. 8, RHS is offering a great opportunity for you: After School Tutoring will be available for all students to seek help in many subject areas. Tutoring takes place on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 2:30-4 in our Library...and it’s FREE! Teachers and peer tutors are looking forward to helping you achieve your academic goals.
Peer Tutor Recruitment
Calling all students who need community service hours: RHS is starting a new after-school tutoring program and we are searching for students to tutor their peers! If you are proficient in Math, English, Science, History, Spanish and/or French, please fill out our Google Forms application. You will need to list the name of a teacher who will recommend you to become a peer tutor—please notify them of your request for recommendation. Fill out the Google Form at the link below. Thank you! -Mrs. Ochoa, Room R-35. http://bit.ly/RHSPeerTutoringProgram2019-2020
College Workshops for Class of 2020 and 2021
Attention Juniors, Seniors, and Parents: In order to be help you navigate the college search and application process, RUSD has organized a series of parent and student workshops for the coming year. Click here for a complete listing of all workshops for this year. Please register in advance so enough materials will be printed for all participants. The registration link is found at the RUSD College and Career website - www.redlandsusd.net/collegeandcareer - click on the College and Career Workshops tab on the left hand side of the page.
Tutoring from University of Redlands Students
The University of Redlands has a new tutoring program for high school students called Big Dogs – a branch of Jaspers Corner Homework Club. At the beginning of next semester, they will be taking in new students once they have their tutors in place. Each student is promised 2 hours per week. This is typically split up M/W or T/Th for one hour each day. This program is free to the public! To be added to the waitlist click here.
Students should receive notifcation of their PSAT results by mid December. The question is then, how can I use these scores to help me do better on the SAT? Review the following Power Point and Video to learn how to link your PSAT scores to the Khan Academy for tutorials and instruction designed especially for your academic needs. Make your test results work for you!
Athletic Academic Support
If you are a student athlete and are in need of academic support then come see Mr. Norman in room R-34 at the times listed. I have almost every textbook available in my room and access to laptops. It is a great time to catch up on make-up work, study for exams, or get help on assignments.
In R-34 with Mr. Norman*
- Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday during 6th period (we will arrange a best day with your coach)
- Wednesday and Thursday at Lunch
*Mr. Norman is a RHS math teacher but is willing and able to provide help in all subjects. Tutors can be arranged.
Need a tutor in a subject or want to be a tutor in a subject? Download the appropriate form below and return it to Mr. Jeff Smith on North Campus.
If your student is sick for more than two days or you know he/she will be out for more than two days, you may contact Mrs. Avila the Counseling Office Clerk at ext. 30141 to request homework. It is most effective to email the teachers directly with a cc: to the student's counselor.
If you know your student will be out for an extended period of time in advance, please contact Mrs. Ridgeway to complete paperwork for Short-Term RISE. She can be reached at ext. 30104.
10 Reasons American Teenagers are more Anxious than Every: We've created an environment that fosters anxiety rather than resilience - Psychology Today, Nov. 03, 2017
Anxiety is a growing concern among teenagers. Click here to find out what parents can do to help diffuse the problem.